Nephrocalcinosis

Nephrocalcinosis is a kidney disorder in which there is an increased amount of calcium in the kidneys . Infection, My husband (59) was diagnosed with kidney cancer Sept 04 and had his left kidney removed in Oct 04.
Overview
There are generally no early symptoms . Later symptoms related to nephrocalcinosis and associated disorders may include : Blood in the urineBlood in the vomit or stoolsChanges in mental statusDrowsy , lethargic , hard to arouseDelirium or confusionComaDecrease in the force of the urinary stream , stream small and weakDecrease in sensation , especially the hands or feetEasy bruising or bleedingFeeling of incomplete emptying of the bladderFlank pain or back painGeneralized swelling and fluid retentionIncreased urine volume or urine output , decreasedIncreased urinary frequency or urgencyNausea , vomitingNeed to urinate at night -LRB- nocturia -RRB- Painful urination -LRB- burning or stinging with urination -RRB- SeizuresUrinary hesitancy -LRB- difficulty initiating the flow of urine -RRB- Urinary incontinence
Symptoms
The goal of treatment is to reduce symptoms . The cause of the disorder must be treated . If the cause is type 1 renal tubular acidosis , vitamin D and calcium should not be given to correct bone disorders associated with the condition because this will worsen nephrocalcinosis.Medications that enhance calcium loss should be discontinued . Never discontinue any medications without consulting your health care provider.Conditions that result from the disorder should be treated as appropriate .
Treatment
Nephrocalcinosis may be caused by a number of conditions : Excess excretion of calcium by the kidneyRenal tubular acidosisMedullary sponge kidneyHypercalcemia -LRB- high calcium levels in the blood -RRB- Renal cortical necrosisTuberculosisPieces of of calcium oxalate or calcium phosphate may break free from the kidney . The pieces -LRB- deposits -RRB- enter the kidney tubules and areas in between them . The deposits may result in reduced kidney function . Pieces of calcium may lead to the formation of stones -LRB- nephrolithiasis -RRB- .This condition is relatively common in premature infants , partly from intrinsic kidney calcium losses and partly from enhanced calcium excretion when they are given loop diuretics .
Causes
An examination may indicate disorders that occur as a consequence of nephrocalcinosis . For example , it may be discovered when symptoms of renal insufficiency , kidney failure , obstructive uropathy , or urinary tract stones develop.There may be signs of fluid overload , such as abnormal heart and lung sounds , if kidney function is poor.Imaging tests can help diagnose this condition . Tests that may be done include : Abdominal CT scanAbdominal filmOther tests may be done to diagnose and determine the severity of associated disorders .
Tests & diagnosis
The outcome varies depending on the extent of complications and the cause of the disorder . Stones can result in obstructive uropathy , possibly leading to eventual kidney failure if they are not passed in the urine or removed .
Prognosis
Prompt treatment of causative disorders , including renal tubular acidosis , may help prevent nephrocalcinosis .
Prevention
Acute renal failureChronic renal failureKidney stonesObstructive uropathy -LRB- acute or chronic , unilateral or bilateral -RRB-
Complications
Call your health care provider if you have symptoms of nephrocalcinosis.Emergency symptoms include suddenly decreased urine output and decreased consciousness .

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